of Lewis and Clark: Dates January 14, 1806 - January 15,
excerpts are taken from entries of the Journals of Lewis
and Clark. Dates: January 14, 1806 - January 15, 1806
Tuesday, 14, we were employed in jerking the meat of the
elk, and searching for one of the canoes which had been
carried off by the tide last night. Having found it, we
now had three of them drawn up out of reach of the water,
and the other secured a strong cord, so as to be ready for
After many inquiries and much observation, we are at length
enabled to obtain a connected view of the nations, who reside
along the coast, on both sides of the Columbia.
To the south, our personal observation has not extended
beyond the Killamucks; but we obtained from those who were
acquainted with the seacoast, a list of the Indian tribes,
in the order in which they succeed each other, to a considerable
distance. The first nation to the south are the Clatsops,
who reside on the southern side of the bay, and along the
seacoast, on both sides of Point Adams. They are represented
as the remains of a much larger nation; but about four years
ago, a disorder, to which till then they were strangers,
but which seems, from their description, to have been the
small-pox, destroyed four chiefs, and several hundreds of
the nation. These are deposited in canoes, a few miles below
us on the bay, and the survivors do not number more than
fourteen houses, and about two hundred souls. Next to them
along the southeast coast, is a much larger nation, the
Killamucks, who number fifty houses, and a thousand souls.
Their first establishment are the four huts at the mouth
of Ecola creek, thirty-five miles from Point Adams; and
two miles below are a few more huts; but the principal town
is situated twenty miles lower, at the entrance of a creek,
called Nielee, into the bay, which we designate by the name
of Killamucks bay. Into the same bay empties a second creek,
five miles further, where is a Killamuck village, called
Kilherhurst; at two miles a third creek and a town called
Kilherner; and at the same distance a town called Chishuck,
at the mouth of Killamuck river. Towerquotton and Chucktin,
are the names of two other towns, situated on creeks which
empty into the bottom of thebay, the last of which is seventy
miles from Point Adams. The Killamuck river is about one
hundred yards wide, and very rapid; but having no perpendicular
fall, is the great avenue for trade. There are two small
villages of Killamucks settled above its mouth, and the
whole trading part of the tribe ascend it, till by a short
portage, they carry their canoes over to the Columbian valley,
and descend the Multnomah to Wappatoo island. Here they
purchase roots, which they carry down the Chockalilum or
Columbia; and, after trafficking with the tribes on its
banks for the various articles which they require, either
return up the Columbia, or cross over through the country
of the Clatsops. This trade, however, is obviously little
more than a loose and irregular barter, on a very small
scale; for the materials for commerce are so extremely scanty
and precarious, that the stranding of a whale was an important
commercial incident, which interested all the adjoining
country. The Killamucks have little peculiar, either in
character or manners, and resemble, in almost every particular,
the Clatsops and ChGnnook.
Adjoining the Killamucks, and in a direction S. S. E. are
the Lucktons, a small tribe inhabiting the seacoast. They
speak the same language as the Killamucks, but do not belong
to the same nation. The same observation applies to the
Kahunkle nation, their immediate neighbors, who are supposed
to consist of about four hundred souls.
The Lickawis, a still more numerous nation, who have a large
town of eight hundred souls.
The Youkone nation, who live in very large houses, and number
seven hundred souls.
The Necketo nation, of the same number of persons.
The Ulseah nation, a small town of one hundred and fifty
The Youitts, a tribe who live in a small town, containing
not more than one hundred and fifty souls.
The Shiastuckle nation, who have a large town of nine hundred
The Killawats nation of five hundred souls collected into
one large town.
With this last nation ends the language of the Killamucks:
and the coast, which then turns towards the southwest, is
occupied by nations whose languages vary from that of the
Killamucks, and from each other. Of these, the first in
The Cookoooose, a large nation of one thousand five hundred
souls, inhabiting the shore of the Pacific and the neighboring
mountains. We have seen several of this nation who were
taken prisoners by the Clatsops and Killamucks. Their complexion
was much fairer than that of the Indians near the mouth
of the Columbia, and their heads were not flattened. Next
to these are,
The Shalalahs, of whom we know nothing, except their numbers,
which are computed at twelve hundred souls. Then follow,
The Luckasos, of about the same number, and
The Hannakalals, whom we estimate at six hundred souls.
This is the extent of the Indian information, and judging,
as we can do, with considerable accuracy from the number
of sleeps, or days journey, the distance which these tribes
occupy along the coast, may be estimated at three hundred
and sixty miles.
On the north of the Columbia, we have already seen the Chinnooks,
of four hundred souls, along the shores of Haley's bay,
and the low grounds on Chinnook river. Their nearest neighbors
to the northeast are
The Killaxthokle, a small nation on the coast, of not more
than eight houses, and a hundred souls. To these succeed
The Chilts, who reside above Point Lewis, and who are estimated
at seven hundred souls, and thirty-eight houses. Of this
nation, we saw, transiently, a few among the Chinnooks,
from whom they did not appear to differ. Beyond the Chilts
we have seen none of the northwest Indians, and all that
we learnt, consisted of an enumeration of their names and
numbers. The nations next to the Chilts, are
The Clamoitomish, of twelve houses, and two hundred and
The Potoashees, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.
The Pailsk, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.
The Quinults, of sixty houses, and one thousand souls.
The Chillates, of eight houses, and one hundred and fifty
The Calasthorte, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.
The Quinnechant, consisting of two thousand souls.
A particular detail of the characters, manners, and habits
of the tribes, must be left to some future adventurers,
who may have more leisure and a better opportunity than
we had to accomplish this object. Those who first visit
the ground, can only be expected to furnish sketches rude
January 15, 1806
Wednesday, 15. Two hunting parties intended setting
out this morning, but they were prevented by incessant rain,
which confined us all to the fort.
The Chinnooks, Clatsops, and most of the adjoining nations
dispose of the dead in canoes. For this purpose a scaffold
is erected, by fixing perpendicularly in the ground four
long pieces of split timber. These are placed two by two
just wide enough apart to admit the canoe, and sufficiently
long to support its two extremities. The boards are connected
by a bar of wood run through them at the height of six feet,
on which is placed a small canoe containing the body of
the deceased, carefully wrapped in a robe of dressed skins,
with a paddle, and some articles belonging to the deceased,
by his side. Over this canoe is placed one of a larger size,
reversed, with its gunwale resting on the crossbars, so
as to cover the body completely. One or more large mats
of rushes or flags are then rolled round the canoes, and
the whole secured by cords usually made of the bark of the
white cedar. On these crossbars are hung different articles
of clothing, or culinary utensils. The method practised
by the Killamucks differs somewhat from this; the body being
deposited in an oblong box, of plank, which, with the paddle,
and other articles, is placed in a canoe, resting on the
ground. With the religious opinions of these people we are
but little acquainted, since we understand their language
too imperfectly to converse on a subject so abstract; but
it is obvious, from the different deposits which they place
by their dead, that they believe in a future state of existence.